U poslovnom svijetu svakodnevno se posreduje velik broj uputa, bilo između zaposlenika, između poslodavaca i zaposlenih, ili između zaposlenih i stranaka, odnosno kupaca. Pritom povremeno dolazi do poteškoća pri primanju uputa, odnosno pri njihovom razumijevanju i kasnijoj realizaciji. Takve poteškoće mogu ugroziti poslovanje i uspješnost nekog poduzeća, a mogu nam i otežati svakodnevnu komunikaciju, kao npr. ako nas tko upita o ispravnosti rada bankomata, uporabi alata, itd. Bez obzira na to radi li se o radnom mjestu ili svakodnevnem životu, u takvim se situacijama moramo potruditi da naše upute dajemo jasno i dovoljno precizno.
1. INSTRUCTIONS = UPUTE
1.1.USEFUL PHRASES = KORISNE FRAZE
1.1.1. Asking for instructions = Traženje uputa
- How do I do this? = Kako to učiniti?
- How do I…? = Kako…?
- What is the best way to…? = Koji je najbolji način za/da…?
- What do you suggest (to do)? = Što predlažete/predlažeš?
- Can/Could you show me how (to operate/to use)…? = Možeš/možete li mi pokazati kako (se koristi)…?
- Do you know how to…? = Znaš/znate li kako…?
- How do I go about … (it)? = Kako da pristupim (tome)…?
1.1.2. Additional questions = Dodatna pitanja
- (I didn’t quite catch that) Could you repeat that, (please)? = (Nisam baš razumio) Možete li ponoviti (molim vas)?
- What did you say? =Što ste rekli/što si rekao?
- Once more, (please)./One more time, (please)./Come again, (please). = Ponovite, molim./Još jednom, molim vas.
- Can/Could you run that by me again? = Možete/možeš li to ponoviti?
- Could/Can you give an example/Can you exemplify? = Možeš/možete li navesti neki primjer?
- (I’m sorry but) I don’t understand (what you mean)… = (Oprostite/Oprosti ali) ne razumijem što mislite…
1.1.3. Interrupting somebody = Nekoga prekidamo
- Just a minute (second)/Wait a minute (second). = Samo trenutak/Samo malo, molim vas.
- Excuse me… = Oprostite, molim vas/Oprosti…
- May I interrupt?/If I may interrupt… = Mogu li vas prekinuti?/Ako mogu prekinuti…
- Sorry for interrupting… = Oprostite/Oprosti što prekidam, …
- Now hold on. (=meaning something isn’t true) = Čekaj/te malo, (to nije istina/to nije tako).
1.1.4. Giving instructions = Dajemo upute/posredovanje uputa
Sequence markers (= riječi koje sugovornika/slušatelja vode kroz upute tako što određuju redoslijed)
- First/Firstly… = Prvo/Najprije… Before that… = Prije toga…
- Second/Secondly… = Drugo… Now… = Sada/u tom trenutku…
- Third/Thirdly… = Treće… You begin by… = Za početak…/Započinješ/te (s)…
- Then… = Zatim/Nakon toga… Finish… = Zaključi/te, Završi/te (s)
- Next… = Zatim/Nakon toga … Finally… = Na kraju/Za kraj/ Konačno …
- After that… = Nakon toga/Zatim… The last step is (to)… = Zadnji korak je…
- Before you begin… = Prije nego počnete/počneš… I would start by… = Počeo(-la) bih (sa)…
- To begin with… = Za početak… The first/last thing you do is… = Prva/Zadnja stvar, koju radiš/radite je…
- The next step is to… = Sljedeći korak je… Once you’ve done that… = Kada ste jednom to učinili…
- When you finish that… = Kada to dovršiš/dovršite…. In the end… = Na kraju…
- When you’ve completed all the steps = Kada prođete sve korake…
2. ORDERS = NAREDBE
U poslovnom svijetu je poželjno izbjegavati naredbe te umijesto njih upotrebljavati upute (instructions) ili preoblikovati naredbu u zamolbu. Ako umijesto naredbi upotrebljavamo upute, podređenom nudimo mogućnost da sam razmišlja o izvedbi određenog zadatka i je na taj način se više trudi pri izvođenju zadatka. Uporaba zamoble umijesto naredbe je pak pristojnija i podređenu osobu na lijep način obavještava o zadacima koje mora obaviti.
2.1.USEFUL TIPS = KORISTNI SAVJETI
2.1.1. Imperative + let’s/please → to soften the order in order not to sound rude = Instruction
- Don’t interrupt me. → Please don’t interrupt me.
- Listen to Maria carefully. → Let’s listen to Maria carefully.
2.1.2. Introductory phrases to soften the order = Instruction
- Would you mind (possibly) helping George with the case. = Biste li mogli/mogao pomoći Georgeu sa tim slučajem.
- I was hoping you could bring me the documents. = Nadao(-la) sam se da ćete mi moći donijeti dokumente.
- Do you think you could prepare the next case. =Možete li, molim vas, pripremiti sljedeći slučaj?
- I’d like you to organize the meeting. = Želio bih da (vi) organizirate sastanak.
- I want you to call Mr Roberts and cancel the appointment. = Želim da nazovete gospodina Robertsa i otkažete sastanak.
2.1.3. Modal verbs to turn orders into requests (more polite)
- Could you call their office? = Možete/Možeš li nazvati njihov ured?
- Would you repeat your name? = Možete li ponoviti vaše ime?
TOM: This is John from IT, how can I help you?
SAM: I can’t seem to access my email.
TOM: Ok, well first click on your browser.
SAM: I can’t find my browser, where is it.
TOM: Go down to your Start menu and click whatever you use to search the web, Firefox, Chrome, or Internet explorer.
SAM: Hmm, can you help me find my Start menu?
TOM: Sure, close all your open windows and move your mouse to the bottom left hand corner of your screen.
SAM: Open windows? What are you talking about?
TOM: You know, any programs that you currently have running?
SAM: I’m afraid you’ve lost me.
TOM: Ok, maybe we should back up a little bit. The first instruction I have for you is “make sure your computer is turned on”!!!
TOM: What are you going to make for our guests?
SAM: Uff, I really don’t have time. Think you could do it for me?
TOM: You’re the cook, I have no idea what to do.
SAM: I’ll walk you through it, don’t worry. You can make a simple quiche, it’s really simple.
TOM: Ok, let’s do it.
SAM: First set the oven to 200 Celsius. Then, chop some onions. Pour enough olive oil in the pan to give it a thin layer, and then cook the onions on medium heat, stirring until golden brown.
TOM: I’m writing this down. What’s next?
SAM: While the onions are cooking, take out a roll of dough from the freezer. Before laying it in the baking pan, make sure you thoroughly butter it.
TOM: Why should I do that?
SAM: Otherwise it will stick to the pan and you won’t be able to take it out.
TOM: Aha, makes sense. Then what?
SAM: Crack open 5 eggs and mix them in a bowl. After thoroughly poking the dough with a fork, pour the egg mixture into the dough. Put a pinch of salt in the onions and give them a final stir. Finally mix the onions into the eggs, and put everything into the oven.
TOM: Ok sounds simple. How long should I cook it for?
SAM: Don’t worry about that. I’ll be home soon, and I can check to see how it is.
TOM: Great, I hope our guests will like it!
SAM: Don’t worry, of course they will.
TOM: I’m having trouble writing this history essay. Think you could give me a hand?
SAM: Sure, what’s the topic about?
TOM: It’s pretty open ended. We’re supposed to write about an issue affecting the modern age.
SAM: Before you begin, then, maybe you should think about the problem that bothers you the most.
TOM: That’s the hard part, actually. At the same time as the world in general is suffering from a whole heap of problems, I’m doing pretty well myself.
SAM: Then what you need is to try a bit of empathy. Close your eyes and put yourself in someone else’s shoes.
TOM: Yeah, good point.
SAM: When you have a clear image, pick up your pencil and make an outline. Start with the clearest points, and then move on to some tangential issues.
TOM: This is working, I can really visualize the issues.
SAM: I thought it would work. Now just take your bullet points and start putting them into sentences. As you go along, make sure you constantly edit your own work. Remember, the best writer is the one who doesn’t hesitate to criticize their own work!
TOM: Help, I think I’m lost!
SAM: Well it’s a small town, so you can’t be too far off track. What’s the last thing you remember seeing?
TOM: The clock tower was on my right-hand side.
SAM: And now are you going towards the hills or toward the valley?
TOM: The hills.
SAM: Great, so you’re headed north. My house is on the north-west side of town. First you need to make a left at the next big road.
TOM: Ok, then what?
SAM: You should see signs for my neighborhood soon. Take the first right after you see a sign, then just keep going straight. Eventually you will end up at the highway. Take it west.
TOM: West, great, got it.
SAM: You’ll see exit number 37. Get off the highway, and go left at the intersection. Just keep going straight until you come to the school. Then you need to hang a u-turn. As soon as you do that, you’ll see my car parked in front of my house.
TOM: Are you sure these directions will work?
SAM: Of course, everyone ends up arriving… eventually. If you get to the firehouse, you’ve gone too far.
TOM: Great, I should see you soon, then.
SAM: We’re looking forward to it!
TOM: I was just reading a book about how to succeed.
SAM: Oh yeah, what did it say?
TOM: It was encouraging, to say the least. It said in order to succeed, first you need to think big.
SAM: Well I think big, but people say I’m just a dreamer.
TOM: You’re not the only one! That’s why the second piece of advice is so helpful.
SAM: And what’s that?
TOM: Not to listen to the negativity of others. It says just to follow your big plans, no matter what.
SAM: I like this book. What other advice is in there?
TOM: After dreaming big and ignoring other people’s criticism, it says to work hard every day. Don’t go to sleep until you have made a positive step forward towards your goal.
SAM: But there are only so many hours in a day.
TOM: That’s why you’ll like the last piece of advice so much.
SAM: I’m all ears.
TOM: It says, no matter how effective you think you are at working spontaneously, absolutely figure out an effective system of time-management. No one succeeds without it.
SAM: Sounds like this book was written just for me!
ANDY: Hi Kim! It’s me Lucy. Sorry to bother you but could you tell me where in Ljubljana I can get bags at affordable prices? I’m at the Ljubljana train station.
BRET: Well… In my opinion the best place to go is CityPark. I usually find the largest variety there. It shouldn’t take you more than 10 minutes to get there. You can reach the shopping Centre by LPP city bus routes 2, 7, 12, and 27.
Question: I was hoping you could explain how you operate this device. Do you have time for that?
Instruction: Sure. First, look through the view finder and then push the green button to make a copy.
Question: Would you mind possibly showing me how to use the photocopier?
Instruction: After inserting the document into this slot, press enter.
Question: Do you know how I can set up a simple website by myself?
Instruction: Sure, choose a suitable WordPress theme and download it. It shouldn’t take more than five minutes by following some simple instructions that you can find on the WordPress support page.
Question: How do I go about making pasta sauce?
Instruction: Start with garlic-and-oil. Once the garlic sizzles, add 8 ounces of crumbled sausage, 2 cups of chopped broccoli rabe, and 1/4 teaspoon of crushed red pepper; then cook until the sausage is no longer pink.