U poslovnom svijetu jednostavno ne možemo zaobići sastanake i prezentacije. Često se pri takvoj vrsti nastupa još bolje istaknu znanje i vještine, odnosno neznanje i nemogućnost posredovanja informacija pojedine osobe.
U ovom ćete poglavlju upoznati te usvojiti znanje o grafovima i tablicama, koji su svakako vrlo važna pomoćna sredstva za poslovne prezentacije. Takav vizualan prikaz vam uvelike može pomoći pri navođenju i opisivanju određenih podataka, ali samo ako ga znate pravilno i učinkovito upotrijebiti. Hrvatski govornici često zapinju pri prezentaciji tabela i grafova na engleskom jeziku, a za slušatelje (govornike engleskog jezika) su posebno neugodni i nerazumljivi pogrešni izrazi. Zbog toga vam ovdje nudimo korisne upute, kao i odgovarajuće izraze te fraze.
- Diagram = Dijagram
- bubble diagram = mjehurićasti grafikon
- Chart/Table = Tablica
- line chart = linijski grafikon
- bar chart (ame also ‘bar graph’) = stupčasti grafikon
- paired bar chart = parni stupčasti grafikon
- stacked bar chart = grupirani stupčasti grafikon
- percentage bar chart = postotni stupčasti grafikon
- column chart = vertikalni stupčasti grafikon
- flow chart (flow diagram) = prikaz tijeka (npr. procesa ili programa)
- pie chart = tortni grafikon
- Graph = Graf
- single line graph = a graph using only one line (possibly) illustrating one trend = grafikon s jednom linijom/jednostavan linijski grafikon
- multiple line graph = a graph using more than one lines( possibly illustrating different trends) = grafikon s više linija/složeni linijski grafikon
- column = stupac
- Segment = Segment/dio
- Line = Crta
- solid line = a line entirely without holes (dots) = Puna crta
- broken line = a disconnected (not continuous) line = Isprekidana crta
- dotted line = a line made up of dots or dashes = Točkasta crta
- Curve = Krivulja
- quadrant = kvadrant
- axis (vertical/horizontal) (plural: axes) = os (okomita/vodoravna)
- to increase/to rise/to go up/to grow = povećati se/podići se/(po)rasti
- to take off/to shoot up/to rocket/to soar/to boom/to jump = vrlo brzo/ neočekivano se povećati se/(po)rasti
- to reach (a) peak/to reach the highest point = doseći vrh/najvišu točku
- to peak = doseći najvišu točku/vrijednost
- to expand = (ra)širiti se
- to recover/to pick up = oporaviti se
- to recover strongly = čvrsto se oporaviti
- to recover slightly = blago se oporaviti
- to remain steady/stable/constant = ostati nepromijenjen/uravnotežen/stabilan
- to stabilize/to level off = uravnotežiti se
- to level out /levelled out/off/stabilized = stabilizirati/uravnotežiti se/stabiliziran/uravnotežen
- (to reach) a plateau = (doći do) stagnacije
- to fluctuate = varirati
- to decrease/to decline/to fall/to go down/to drop/to reduce = sniziti se/opasti
- to shrink = smanjiti se
- to plunge/to dive/to plummet /to sank/to crash/to tumble = nenadano/neočekivano opasti
- to reach the lowest point/to hit the bottom/to hit a low/to bottom out = doseći dno/najnižu točku
- decline = pad/opadanje
- decrease = opadanje
- drop = (hiter) pad/opadanje
- fall = pad
- fluctuation = variranje/nestabilnost
- improvement = napredak
- increase = (po)rast
- recovery = oporavak/povrat
- reduction = smanjenje/sniženje
- rise = porasti/dići se
- give or take = manje-više
- dip = pad
- to dip = opasti
- peak = vrh/vrhunac
- position on the market = položaj na tržištu
- highest level = najbolji položaj/najviši položaj
- lowest level = najgori/najniži položaj
- to stand at = biti na…/biti uz…
- to improve = poboljšati (se)
- performance = rezultat/učinkovitost
- ups and downs = usponi in padovi/porast i opadanje
- trend = trend/tendencija
- upward trend = uzlazni/rastući trend
- downward trend = padajući trend
- overall trend = opći trend
- to represent = predstavljati
- correlation = uzajamna zavisnost/korelacija
- correlated /correlative = uzajaman
- a correlation between… = uzajamna zavisnost/korelacija između…
- inverse correlation = suprotna korelacija
- inversely correlated = suprotno uzajamen
- in the region of = u okviru/u opsegu
- just short of = nešto manje od
- to reach = doseći
- a rise of some ________ €/$ = an increase of some (approximately) ________ €/$ = porast za ________ €/$
- percent / per cent (plural: percent/per cent) = postotak
- percentage = postotak
- section = dio/presjek/odrezak
- fraction = dio
- share = udio/dio
- to be well above/to be way over = biti znatno iznad (npr. iznad očekivanja)
- to be well below/to be way under = biti znatno ispod (npr. ispod očekivanja)
- to account for = predstavljati (ovaj dio predstavlja 5%…)
- preferred … over = izabran umijesto…
- Steady = not liable to fluctuate or especially to fall = Uravnotežen/stabilan → Steadily = in a steady manner = uravnoteženo/stabilno
- Steep = sudden and very big (esp. of a rise or a fall in an amount) = Nagao/nevjerojatan → Steeply = in a steep manner = Naglo
- Moderate = being within reasonable or average limits; not excessive or extreme = Umjeren → Moderately = to a moderately sufficient extent or degree = Umjereno
- Slight = small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or at least some = Blag/Jedva primjetan/ → Slightly = to a small degree or extent = Blago/Jedva primjetno
- Minimal = the least possible = Minimalan → Minimally = to a minimal degree = Minimalno
- Substantial = fairly large = Znatan/priličan → Substantially = to a great extent or degree = Znatno/prilično
- Considerable = large or relatively large in number or amount or extent or degree = Znatan/priličan → Considerably = to a great extent or degree = Znatno/ prilično
- Sharp = (of a rise/fall/change) sudden and rapid = Snažan/Izrazit →Sharply = suddenly and rapidly = Snažno/Izrazito
- Enormous = large in size or extent or amount or power or degree = Ogroman →Enormously = very much/extremely = Ogromno
- Huge = unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope = Ogroman → Hugely = extremely = Ogromno/silno
- Rapid = done or occurring in a brief period of time = Brz → Rapidly = with rapid movements = Brzo
- Swift = moving very fast = Brz/nagao → Swiftly = in a swift manner = Brzo/naglo
- Quick = done with speed/moving fast/happening very soon = Brz/Žuran/nagao → Quickly/Quick (both adverbs) = fast; soon = Brzo/Žurno/naglo
- Sudden = happening without warning or in a short space of time = Nenadan → Suddenly = quickly and without warning = Nenadano
- Gradual = proceeding in small stages = Postupan → Gradually = in a gradual manner = Postupno
- Gentle = soft and mild = Nježan → Gently = in a gentle manner = Nježno
- Marked = easily noticeable = Vidljiv/izrazit → Markedly = in a clearly noticeable manner = Vidljivo/izrazito
- Rough = not quite exact or correct = Okviran → Roughly = imprecise but fairly close to correct = Okvirno
- Spectacular = very impressive = Nevjerojaten/spektakularan → Spectacularly = very impressively = Nevjerojatno/spektakularno
- Dramatic = sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect = Dramatičan → Dramatically = in a dramatic manner = Dramatično
- Disastrous = (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences → Katastrofalan = Disastrously = Katastrofalno
- Slow = not moving quickly or taking a comparatively long time = Spor → Slowly = without speed = Sporo
- Encouraging = giving courage or confidence or hope = Ohrabrujući → Encouragingly = in a encouraging manner = Ohrabrujuće
- Disappointing = not up to expectations = Razočaravajući → Disappointingly = in a disappointing manner = Razočaravajuće
- As we can see from the diagram/chart/graph = Kao što možemo vidjeti/uočiti iz dijagrama/tablice/grafa
- As can be seen from the diagram/chart/graph = Kao što je vidljivo iz dijagrama/tablice/grafa
- According to the diagram/chart/graph = Prema dijagramu/tablici/grafu
- As the diagram/chart/graph illustrates… = Kao što dijagram/tablica/graf prikazuje…
- The diagram/chart/graph presents data (showing)… = Dijagram/tablica/graf predstavlja/prikazuje podatke (koji pokazuju)…
- The diagram/chart/graph (clearly)shows/indicates that… = Dijagram/tablica/graf (jasno) pokazuje da…
- As is evident from the diagram/chart/graph… = Kao što je vidljivo iz dijagram/tablice/grafa…
- The diagram/chart/graph provides (strong) evidence that… = Dijagram/tablica/graf daje/sadrži (snažne) dokaze da/za…
- The diagram/chart/graph provides (strong) support for the theory/thesis that… = Dijagram/tablica/graf (snažno/nedvojbeno) podupire teoriju/tezu o…
- From the diagram/chart/graph we can conclude that… = Na temelju dijagrama/tablice/grafa možemo zaključiti, da…
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t illustrate… = Dijagram/tablica/graf ne prikazuje…
- The diagram/chart/graph does not present data (showing)… = Dijagram/tablica/graf ne predstavlja/prikazuje podatke (koji pokazuju)…
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t show… = Dijagram/tablica/graf ne pokazuje…
- It is not evident from the diagram/chart/graph that… = Iz dijagrama/tablice/grafa nije očito/vidljivo da…
- From the diagram/chart/graph it is not evident/clear that… = Iz dijagrama/tablice/grafa nije vidljivo/jasno da…
- From the diagram/chart/graph we cannot conclude that… = Na temelju dijagrama/tablice/grafa ne možemo zaključiti da…
- The diagram/chart/graph does not (clearly) indicate that… = Dijagram/tablica/graf ne (po)kazuje (jasno) da
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t provide (strong) evidence that… = Dijagram/tablica/graf ne daje/sadrži (snažne) dokaze da/za…
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t provide (strong) support for the theory/thesis that… = Dijagram/tablica/graf ne podupire (snažno/nedvojbeno) teoriju/tezu da/o…
- The diagram/chart/graph does not indicate/illustrate/show whether… = Dijagram/tablica/graf ne namiguje /pokazuje/prikazuje je li….
- We can draw no conclusions regarding… from the diagram/chart/graph = Na temelju dijagrama/tablice/grafa ne možemo izvući nikakve zaključke o…
- The diagram/chart/graph provides inconclusive evidence regarding… = Dijagram/tablica/graf nudi nedovoljne dokaze vezane uz…/ne osigurava dovoljno dokaza vezanih uz…
TOM: I thought that the plummet we saw last month was going to be end of the bad news.
JIM: I’m afraid you thought wrong. The fluctuations you see now are like ripples after a serious crash.
TOM: Who would have thought we could bottom out so seriously after so many years of growth?
JIM: I don’t think anyone. This was far from a gradual decrease, but truly a free-fall event.
TOM: Do we have any plans for recovery?
JIM: I’m just an analyst, not a planner. All I know is that, without something drastic, the fall will continue until we hit rock bottom.
TOM: How soon will that be?
JIM: Sooner than you think, for sure.
TOM: The data sure aren’t stunning, are they?
JIM: I mean, it’s not exactly the dotcom bubble, but I think we can be satisfied.
TOM: You really think so?
JIM: I do. We don’t see any skyrockets, no soaring peaks, but we see a nice, steady growth.
TOM: That’s true. At no point do we begin to dip off in terms of sales, do we?
JIM: Not at all. Every month is better than the previous one.
TOM: It’s just sad that the increase is so gradual.
JIM: I don’t think that should be worrying. It’s actually sometimes an indicator of even less healthy progress if there are intermediate apexes. It’s better to improve slowly, but surely.
TOM: I surely hope you’re right!
TOM: I think our investors will be satisfied with this positive trend.
JIM: I absolutely agree. Our projections demonstrate the very real possibility of standing at 100% growth by the end of the year.
TOM: That’s impressive.
JIM: I’ll say. It’s indicative of the positive changes we’ve implemented.
TOM: Even right now, in Q3, figures are in the region of 100%, and we still have 4 more months till end of year.
JIM: Exactly. We have built up a nice bumper, so that even in the event of some unpredictability in the next quarter, it would take something drastic to throw us from the tracks.
TOM: Excellent news, I’ll inform the board.
TOM: We’ve certainly had some ups and downs this year, haven’t we?
JIM: That’s an understatement. Our figures have gone up and down like a roller coaster.
TOM: Yeah, the low points were dismal, the high points were glorious, and the overall trend is about where we started the year, right?
JIM: Exactly. Now we’re just short of where we started the year.
TOM: But the trend for the past month has been positive, right?
TOM: So we could end the year in the black?
JIM: I suppose anything’s possible at this point. But after the chaotic year we’ve had, I think most people would settle for anything other than a catastrophic drop at this point.
TOM: Congratulations, team; we’ve done better than expected.
JIM: I would warn about celebrating too much too soon. There are still some data which haven’t been accounted for in this analysis.
TOM: Like what?
JIM: Just the latest sales figures from the past month and a half.
TOM: Do you think that they will have a serious impact?
JIM: They won’t be negligible, but no probably they won’t have too great an effect.
TOM: So that means in all probably we’ve come out well above our predictions?
JIM: Probably yes.
TOM: Then don’t interrupt me just to be a pessimist, enjoy yourself for once!
JIM: Analysts have a hard time enjoying ourselves until the fat lady sings.
The chart illustrates the fluctuation in the figure of people travelling via theVienna train station over the course of a day.
The most lively time of the day is in the morning. As is evident from the chart there is a distinct rise between 05:00 and 07:00, with 650 people using the station at 7 o’clock. Afterwards the figures fall swiftly to less than 350 at 9 o’clock. Between 10 am and 2 pm the figures go up to reach a plateau of a bit under 280 people using the Vienna station. The afternoon faces a further decline in figures – less than 200 people use the station at 5 pm. Then, at 6 p.m., there is a swift increase to a peak of 480. After 8 pm, figures fall considerably, with only a minor rise again at 9 p.m. In general, the chart shows that the Vienna station is most packed with commuters in the early morning and early evening hours.
The line graph illustrates numbers for unemployment in Slovenian workforce between February 2009 and August 2014. It is obvious from the graph that the unemployment rate fluctuated a great deal during this time. At the start of this period, the unemployment rate stood at 9.1 per cent. Just a couple of months later that number had gone up moderately to 10.2 per cent. The figure then continued to be relatively stable until October 2010. What followed was a consistent upward trend and by August 2013 the rate had risen to 13.09 per cent. It remained at this level until October the same year. In the period from November 2013 to February 2014 the unemployment rate faced another fall of 2 per cent. No additional changes occurred in the remainder of the period.
The chart shows the Italian unemployment rate between June 2010 and September 2014. The unemployment rate stood at 9.43 per cent in June 2010. From June 2010 to October 2011 there was a slight fall of 1 per cent, which did not last long, and the figure had increased back to 10 per cent by June 2012. From July 2012 onwards, though, there was a noticeable upward movement in the rate of unemployment in Italy. From July 2012 to August three years later, the rate reached a peak of 12.6 per cent.